A passive house is a new idea in the approach to energy saving in modern construction. The innovation is manifested in the fact that it focuses mainly on improving the performance of components and systems already existing in each building, instead of introducing additional solutions. The name “passive building” refers to the fact that such buildings use energy from solar radiation in a passive way, i.e. without the use of active installation solutions.
In passive houses the reduction of the heat demand is so high that a traditional heating system is usually not used; instead the ventilation air is only reheated. In Polish climatic conditions, especially for smaller objects such as one-family houses, it is necessary to use a small heating system, such as floor heating or radiators. In order to balance the heat demand solar radiation and recovery heat ventilation (recuperation) are also used, as well as heat gains from the internal sources, such as electrical appliances and devices and the residents themselves. The idea of passive houses has not been patented, registered legally and is not subject to other forms of legal protection
It is possible to construct passive houses using different construction technologies.
A passive house is distinguished by very low energy demand for heating - below 15 kWh / (m² ∙ year). This means that during the heating season in order to heat one square metre of housing 15 kWh is needed, equivalent to burning 1.5 liters of fuel oil, or 1.7 cubic metres of natural gas, or 2.3 kg of coal. For comparison, the need for heat in a conventional building is about 120 kWh / (m² ∙ year). The essence of the passive construction is to maximize energy gains and to reduce heat loss.In order to achieve this, all the inside barriers have a low heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the outer shell of the building is impermeable to air. Similarly, window frames show a smaller heat loss than standard solutions used. In turn, the heat loss associated with the ventilation of the building is reduced by 75-90% thanks to the system of intake and exhaust ventilation. The solution often used in passive houses is a ground heat exchanger. In winter fresh air, after being filtered, passes through the device, where it is pre-heated. The air then enters the recuperator, in which it is heated using the heat of the exhaust air from the building. It is characteristic for the standard passive construction that most of the demand for heat is fullfilled by the gains from the solar radiation and the heat radiated by household devices and people staying in the building.
Only during unusually low temperatures the air intaken into the rooms is additionally heated.
Currently, the cost of building a passive house in Poland is 8-15% (and in the case of a bad design up to 35%) more relative to the standard building. In Germany additional costs amount to only 3-8%.
In 2013 The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management launched a subsidy program for new single-family and multi-family house constructions having a reduced demand for energy; the program introduces two energy standards: NF15 and NF40. NF15 standard is equivalent to the standard of the passive house.
The first Central and Eastern Europe passive house with necessary certificates of The Passive House Institute in Darmstadt was built in 2006 in Smolec near Wroclaw.
On February 3, 2011, in Slomniki in Malopolska Province for the first time in Poland a sports hall built in passive house technology was ceremonially opened.
Passive window is a window that meets the requirements of passive construction, which, due to high thermal insulation can be heated by heat sources previously overlooked thermal radiation of the sun and the heat emitted by residents and home appliances. The window should have a heat transfer coefficient for the whole window Uw below 0.8 W / m2K . It may for example be a window with the tri-pane package wooden structure, wooden and aluminium or aluminum; often a component of such a construction is a special polyurethane foam. In contrast to the standard depth window frames (approx. 68 mm), passive windows have the width between 85-120 mm.
We can add that a necessary condition for passive windows that can be installed in a passive building is Uf <0.8 W / m2K and Uw of the entire window should be <0.8 W / m2K, using insulating glass unit with Ug = 0.7 W / m2K. Unfortunately, there are very few windows on the Polish market which satisfy these conditions . To meet the tnew trends and requirements we already have such a window in our offer.
PVC passive window in the system Aluplast Energeto 8000 Passiv
Energeto Systems ®, is an example of the use and combination within a single technology all the factors necessary to optimize PVC windows in order to limit heat loss. It is recommended for systems of modern energy efficient and passive buildings.
Technical parameters of the energeto system:
- inglued panes improve the thermal quality of the window and the statics of the sash
- no steel reinforcments; they are replaced by the unique technology “powerdur”
- window fittings with covered hinges, which substantially improves the tightness of the window
Passive aluminium window in the system Schuco AWS112.IC, ADS112.IC